Introduction/Objective Not only do pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity increase the risk of adverse
maternal and perinatal outcomes but they also lead to the development of gestational diabetes mellitus.
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity
in the Republic of Srpska and to investigate its association with hyperglycemia and risk of gestational
Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out during the period from February to October 2012
among 555 pregnant women in gestational period from 24 to 28 weeks. The criterion for exclusion from
the sample was previously diagnosed type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
Results Before pregnancy, 20.39% of participants had increased body mass index, while 4.04 % [95%
confidence interval (CI); 2.62–6.13] were obese. Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 10.91%
(95% CI, 8.44–13.98) of them. The increase in body mass index by 1 increased the risk of gestational
diabetes mellitus by 1.09 times [odds ratio (OR) = 1.09; 95% CI; 1.02–1.16]. Pregnant women who were
overweight had a 4.88 times greater risk (OR = 4.88; 95% CI, 1.23–29.41) of developing gestational
Conclusion Every fifth pregnant woman in this study was overweight or obese before pregnancy. The
increase in body mass index by 1 increased the risk of gestational diabetes by 1.09 times (OR = 1.09; 95%
CI; 1.02–1.16). Counselling is necessary for overweight and obese women planning pregnancy.