Abstract: Busha cattle are an autochthonous breed in many Balkan countries. 1t belongs to a group
of primitive shorthorn cattle (Bos Brachyceros Europaeus). In the R. of Macedonia this breed has
officially been classified as triple purpose breed (for meat, milk and work) but
considering its low productive capabilities it is more similar to some primitive working breeds.
This breed of cattle used to be dominant and most important breed in almost all
Balkan countries until 50s and 60s of the XX century but today in lowland areas with
intensive farming they are already replaced with more productive and specialized cattle
breeds. Today these cattle are no longer used for work but because of absence
of systematic cattle improvement program these animals have _retained their poor milk
and meat production capability. This breed is well adapted to the very harsh feeding
and housing conditions that exist in the rural areas of mountain areas and is
resistant to diseases. It is still the most significant milk and meat resource for
these areas where the more productive cattle breeds cannot thrive successfully.
After thorough phenotypic characterization of cattle classified as “Busha type” using FAO
guidelines for phenotypic characterization and literature data merits for this breed,
total number of 606 pure breed Busha cattle were recorded in the R. of Macedonia in the
herd book for this breed in year 2018. The aim of the research was to estimate the effective
size (Ne) of cattle breed Bush a in 2018. The value of Ne in the controlled population of Busha
cattle in 2018 was 180,15, comparing to 2015 when was 239,80, or in 2013 when was 154,53, and
in 2014 when was 117,50. Obtained data for Ne for population of Busha cattle in the
R. of Macedonia according to the international and FAO criteria, lead to the statement
that this population could be characterized as a population IN RISK.
Keywords: domestic cattle, Busha, effective size